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pregnant mouse behavior

Interestingly, the REMS time of THM was similar to that of olmesartan-administered PAH mice. Please check for further notifications by email. The angiotensin II receptors, An essential role for angiotensin II type 1a receptor in pregnancy-associated hypertension with intrauterine growth retardation, Electroencephalography during normotensive and hypertensive pregnancy: a systematic review, Disruption of the blood-brain barrier in cerebrum and brain stem during acute hypertension, Intra-abdominal hypertension causes reversible blood-brain barrier disruption, Tissue-specific expression of the human renin gene in transgenic mice, Expression of the human angiotensinogen gene in transgenic mice and transfected cells, The brain renin-angiotensin system: location and physiological roles, The brain renin-angiotensin system: a diversity of functions and implications for CNS diseases, Impaired placental neovascularization in mice with pregnancy-associated hypertension, Oxidative stress and cerebral endothelial cells: regulation of the blood-brain-barrier and antioxidant based interventions, Nrf2 inactivation enhances placental angiogenesis in a preeclampsia mouse model and improves maternal and fetal outcomes. Despite the longer total NREMS time during late pregnancy, the NREMS episode duration during late pregnancy was shorter than that before and during early pregnancy (F = 5.168, df = 4, p = .003; Figure 2E). In late pregnancy, all PAH mice showed much fewer and slower spontaneous locomotion but they were still able to move in response to external stimuli, such as air puff and walked to obtain food and drink. I have a fancy mouse, Hilda, who is currently pregnant. MY is a former Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. In addition, the administration of olmesartan alleviated sleep/wake behavior abnormalities of PAH mice during late pregnancy such as general slowing of EEG, loss of the circadian change in sleep/wakefulness, and a drastic reduction in REMS. However, few sleep studies of pregnant women using polysomnography have been reported [6–8]. (C–E) Total time spent in REMS (C), REMS episode duration (D), and REMS episode number (E) in nonpregnant PAH mice, olmesartan-administered PAH mice, and THM. They become more active at night and are always looking for food sources. She will also start to build a nest. In contrast, the total wake time during the light phase was similar to that before and during pregnancy. Studies in the laboratory and under semi-natural conditions have shown that the pups benefit from such communal nursing in terms of increased growth and survival. How a pregnant mouse’s microbes influence offspring’s brain development – new study offers clues September 23, 2020 2.03pm EDT Helen Vuong , University of California, Los Angeles Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. Since the systolic blood pressure of THM is similar to that of olmesartan-administered PAH mice, the sleep/wake behaviors of these mice allow us to examine how mild-to-moderate hypertension affects sleep. Mice are social and care better for their young when they are housed with friends. Among a variety of inbred mice strains, C57BL/6 mice have been well characterized as a common platform for a variety of physiological and pathological characteristics, including sleep/wakefulness. After recovery from anesthesia, the mice were housed individually and tethered to a counterbalanced arm (Instech Laboratories) that enabled the free movement and exerted minimal weight. (E) The injection of Evans blue into the tail vein resulted in multiple leakages in the PAH mouse brain, but not in the normotensive mouse brain during late pregnancy. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time did not change during the course of pregnancy. Altered REMS, independent of NREMS changes, supports the idea that the regulatory system for REMS functions differently from that for NREMS [44]. (G–I) Total time spent in REM sleep (REMS) (G), REMS episode duration (H), and REMS episode number (I) before, during early and mid pregnancy, and postpartum in PAH mice. Brussé IA, Peters NC, Steegers EA, Duvekot JJ, Visser GH. However, this interpretation could be too simple since progesterone has also been reported to reduce wakefulness [51]. Major findings, such as long NREMS time during late pregnancy in wild-type mice and the abnormal sleep/wakefulness of PAH mice during late pregnancy, were sufficiently robust with small interindividual differences, which can be replicated with good reproducibility. Interfering (adding unwanted scents from handling or removing scent by changing cages) with these olfactory identification cues risks disrupting maternal behavior, particularly during the first week following parturition. The data from individual mice are presented as the group mean ± SEM. It is very common for the female mouse to have her smaller territory inside of the males larger territory. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on sleep/wakefulness during the course of pregnancy in mice. The EEG spectrum of PAH mice in late pregnancy showed a decrease in high frequency power (>8 Hz) (Figure 1D), lacked a clear difference between the light and dark phases, and lacked any stretch of wake or sleep epochs (Figure 1D). Similarly, the total wake time during the dark phase during late pregnancy was significantly shorter than that before and during early pregnancy (F = 5.949, df = 4, p = .001; Figure 2A). Hormonal changes underlie the first component to appear in the pregnant mouse female, nest building; however the sound of pups can also induce nest … During the dark phase, there was no difference in the REMS episode duration (Figure 2H). These anxieties may surface in your dreams. Since we unequivocally identified REMS in PAH mice during late pregnancy based on the appearance of the θ wave (6–9 Hz) and muscle atonia (Figure 1C), we examined how the administration of olmesartan affects REMS in PAH mice. In this study, we examined sleep/wakefulness in female C57BL/6 mice during pregnancy. For REMS, the power density during mid pregnancy was lower at 6 Hz (F = 10.101, df = 3, p = .001) and 7 Hz (F = 23.156, df = 3, p < .0001), and higher at 9 Hz (F = 14.724, df = 3, p < .0001) and 10 Hz (F = 9.019, df = 3, p = .002 for 10 Hz) compared with that before pregnancy (Figure 6C). Haruna Komiya, MD, Chika Miyoshi, PhD, Kanako Iwasaki, BSc, Noriko Hotta-Hirashima, MS, Aya Ikkyu, MS, Satomi Kanno, Takato Honda, BSc, Masahiko Gosho, PhD, Hiromi Hamada, MD, PhD, Toyomi Satoh, MD, PhD, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, PhD, Hiromasa Funato, MD, PhD, Masashi Yanagisawa, MD, PhD, Sleep/Wake Behaviors in Mice During Pregnancy and Pregnancy-Associated Hypertensive Mice, Sleep, Volume 41, Issue 3, March 2018, zsx209, https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsx209. The number of NREMS episodes during late pregnancy was higher than that during any other periods during both light phase (F = 4.795, df = 4, p = .004) and dark phase (F = 8.697, df = 4, p < .0001; Figure 2F). As a normotensive control, we used pregnant human angiotensinogen transgenic mice mated with male human angiotensin transgenic mice. Sleep parameters of THM and wild-type mice were compared using Student’s t-test. Hi everyone! For group comparisons among PAH, olmesartan-administered PAH, and THM, total δ density and REMS parameters were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey’s test. The duration of the REMS episode decreased during mid and late pregnancy and postpartum compared with that before pregnancy (F = 13.474, df = 4, p < .0001; Figure 2H). Thus, an increased number of REMS episodes contributes to the increased total REMS time of olmesartan-administered PAH mice. Identify the sex of your hamster. Two-tailed t-test. They love being pregnant and don’t appear to have problems adjusting at all. Prozac puzzle: https://secureservercdn.net/198.71.233.5/712.919.myftpupload.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/maternal-video.mp4. Like many pregnant women, Leigh Llemit didn't have appetite on her first 2 months of pregnancy, but turned into a voracious eater once past that stage. The daily time spent in REMS and the daily number of REMS episodes were not altered during the course of pregnancy, which is consistent with previously reported for pregnant rats [40, 43]. Thus, the acute and severe increase in blood pressure may solely be responsible for the BBB disruption in PAH mice and subsequently lead to abnormal sleep/wake behaviors. Furthermore, many gene-modified mice have been developed as animal models of human diseases, including preeclampsia [9] and the sleep disorder narcolepsy [10], which enables the examination of how pregnancy affects the phenotypes of animal models. Corresponding Author: Hiromasa Funato, MD, PhD or Masashi Yanagisawa, MD, PhD, International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan. During the course of pregnancy, the total daily wake time tended to decrease and was shortest during late pregnancy (710 ± 24.4 min), which was significantly shorter than that before and during early pregnancy (F = 6.622, df = 4, p < .0001; Figure 2A). Pregnancy is thought by so many people to be a time of happiness and excitement but the reality for most women is that pregnancy is a mixture of ups, downs and other extreme emotions. This work was supported by the World Premier International Research Center Initiative from MEXT (to MY), JSPS KAKENHI (Grant Number 17H06095 to MY and HF; 16K15187 to HF; 26507003 to CM and HF; 15K18966), MEXT KAKENHI (Grant Number 15H05935 to MY and HF), Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST program) from JSPS (to MY), Research grant from Uehara Memorial Foundation research grant (to MY), and Research grant from Takeda Science Foundation research grant (to MY). Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Mice are only pregnant for 21 days. PAH mice in late pregnancy continuously exhibited abnormal EEG and EMG with increased slower activity in EEG and lower variability in EMG during wakefulness, and lower amplitude EEG and continuous EMG activities during NREMS (Figure 1C). Hormonal changes underlie the first component to appear in the pregnant mouse female, nest building; however the sound of pups can also induce nest building in non-pregnant nulliparious (virgin) females. The systolic blood pressure of PAH mice was 100–110 mm Hg which is similar to that of wild-type mice until pregnant day 12, started to increase at pregnant day 13, up to 160 mm Hg just prior to delivery. Analyses were carried out using two-sided tests and a statistical significance level of 0.05. (D) Enlarged spike-and-wave discharges indicated in (B and C). Supplementary material is available at SLEEP online. (D) NREMS δ density before, during early and mid pregnancy, and postpartum. n = 6. All PAH mice exhibited disruption of the blood–brain barrier, and half of the PAH mice showed spike-and-wave discharges. If she doesn't care for them and they are less than 10 days of age, it is extremely difficult to save the babies. Olmesartan-administered PAH mice did not show general slowing of EEG. However, blood pressures higher than the upper limit of cerebral vascular autoregulation can lead to disruption of the BBB and vasogenic edema, eventually resulting in hypertensive encephalopathy [39]. Social development or mice and some of these changes, we used pregnant human angiotensinogen transgenic mice and embryos pregnancy... Spent in each state 45 ] that are not classified into NREMS or wakefulness in. Some women appear to breeze through pregnancy with Preexisting or Gestational Diabetes: Management Practices Canada. 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